Cs:Sabayon Linux

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Sabayon Linux - Přehled

Ekvivalent v reálném světě

"Sabayon je Italský dezert vyrobený z vaječných žloutků, cukru, sladkého likéru (obvykle vína Marsala) a někdy se přidá smetana nebo celá vejce. Je to velmi lehký pudink, který byl ušlehán, aby do sebe dostal velké množství vzduchu."

Skutečná teorie

Sabayon Linux je operační systém poháněný jádrem Linux a GNU. Existuje mnoho příchutí Linuxu, většina geeků jim říká distribuce. Jsme Linuxová distribuce a pokoušíme se poskytnout našim uživatelům nejlepší a nejúplnější počítačovou zkušenost.

Naše filosofie následuje dvě jednoduchá tvrzení:

A) OOTB (out of the box) Funkce: Neměly by existovat žádné problémy a všechno by mělo "prostě fungovat".

B) KISS: Keep It Simple Stupid!

Navíc, k dosažení toho, Sabayon Linux používá testovací větev Gentoo jako základ. Sabayon je (a vždy bude) 100% kompatibilní s Gentoo. Sabayon podporuje jak nováčky v Linuxu, tak "kreativní hackery jádra". Jak? Díky bodu A výše a také proto, že Gentoo Linux je nejrozšiřitelnější Linuxová distribuce. Sabayon i Gentoo jsou rolling release distribuce, ale Sabayon čas od času uvolní novou verzi.

Co Sabayon Linux NENÍ

  • NENÍ to pouze binární distribuce. Ano, můžete nainstalovat Sabayon Linux za půl hodiny a dostat tak mocný desktop. Ale naše současná politika nepodporuje myšlenku forku balíčkovacího systému Gentoo Linuxu, protože uživatelé neradi tráví čas kompilováním. Máme jasnou představu; pokud nechcete kompilovat hromadu balíčků, prostě počkejte na další vydání, protože vždy budete schopni:
    • Aktualizovat vaší současnou instalaci na poslední vydání Sabayon Linuxu.
    • Doba mezi uvolňováním jednotlivých verzí Sabayon Linuxu je velmi krátká. Pokud chcete udržet vaše PC bezpečné, použijte službu glsa-check.
  • NENÍ vyvíjen podle určitého názoru. To znamená, že pokud upřednostňujeme nějakou aplikaci před jinou, je to proto, že může fungovat lépe a být bližší naší OOTB filozofii popsané výše.
  • NENÍ řízen žádnou společností. Vždy jsme byli uživatelé a teprve pak vývojáři. To je náš názor. My jen chceme něco, co bude fungovat bez Microsoftu a jejich povrchní implementace operačního systému!
  • NENÍ to Ubuntu! Nesnažíme se napodobovat jiné distribuce, snažíme se vzít to nejlepší z každé.

Jak se Sabayon Linux liší od ostatních distribucí?

  • Sabayon nabízí úplný out-of-the-box systém: přichází s předinstalovanými kodeky a ovladači.
  • Nové verze jsou vydávány v krátkém čase.
  • Sabayon je rolling release. Pokud je jednou instalován a aktualizován pravidelně, nemělo by být nutné jej přeinstalovávat na novou verzi. Jednoduše použijte GUI správce balíčků (např. Rigo) nebo příkazovou řádku, pokud chcete, aby jste jej udrželi aktuální.
  • Navzdory většině dalších distribucí, Sabayon je úplně nezávislý na komerčních zájmech. Za Sabayonem nestojí žádná velká firma, která by mu diktovala co má dělat. Vývojáři Sabayon Linuxu dříve používali další distribuce, proto začali vytvářet distribuci "od uživatelů k uživatelům".

Snímky obrazovky

Můžete se podívat na snímky obrazovky několika verzí Sabayon Linuxu: http://www.sabayon.org/screenshots.

Také se podívejte na snímky obrazovky při instalaci Sabayon Linuxu na pevný disk: http://wiki.sabayon.org/index.php?title=Cs:Instalace#Instalace

Important Items to Know

Boot Methods for special ways of using Sabayon

NOTE: Starting from SabayonLinux 3.2, all these options can be choosen without typing anything on the boot command line


  • Start the SabayonLinux Live system.
 sabayon
  • Start the Graphical Installation.
 install
  • Start the Text mode Installation.
 text-install
  • Start the SabayonLinux Live system without proprietary drivers.
 genuine
  • Start the SabayonLinux Live system without loading X.Org.
 console
  • Start the SabayonLinux Live system with Internet Kiosk framework.
 internetkiosk
  • Start the SabayonLinux Live system with Internet Kiosk framework + NX Client.
 internetkiosknx  
  • Start the SabayonLinux Live system in Debug mode (expert).
 debug
  • Perform a memory test.
 memtest

Boot parameters and workarounds for problematic Hardware

Sabayon Linux supports some extra features that can be enabled by adding the boot parameters below. Moreover, you can tune the system to behave in different ways.

  • lang: set a specific localization
  lang=fr_FR
  lang=en_GB
  lang=it_IT
  lang=es_ES
  • res: set a specific resolution
  res=1280x1024
  res=1920x1440
  res=800x600
  • refresh: set a specific Monitor Vertical Refresh Rate for X.Org
  refresh=75
  refresh=50-85
  • hsync: set a specific Monitor Horizontal Sync Rate for X.Org
   hsync=64
   hsync=28-110
  • xdriver: force X.Org to use a specific Video driver
 xdriver=vesa (good generic driver)
 xdriver=ati
 xdriver=radeon (open-source driver for ATI GPUs - see X.Org Wiki article http://www.x.org/wiki/radeon)
 xdriver=radeonhd  (open-source driver for ATI GPUs - see X.Org Wiki article http://www.x.org/wiki/radeonhd)
 xdriver=nv
 xdriver=nvidia
 Other xdriver options include i810, i740, i128, sis, mga, r128, openchrome, cirrus, cyrix, s3 and s3virge
  • insmod: force the loading of a specific kernel module
 insmod=ndiswrapper
 insmod=agpgart,gameport
  • rmmod: force the unloading of a specific kernel module
 rmmod=ndiswrapper
 rmmod=i2c,gameport
  • sound=mute: do not autoconfigure the sound mixer.
  • nofreqscaling: disable the autoconfiguration of CPU frequency scaling.
  • noddc: disable DDC Monitor autoconfiguration.
  • session=: autostart a specific Desktop Environment. Available kde,gnome,xfce,fluxbox,e16
    • To autostart Fluxbox for example:
 session=fluxbox
  • music: enable music during boot (experimental).
  • autoscramble: randomization of root and sabayonuser passwords.
  • nox: start the System without X.Org.
  • legacy: start with safe parameters - for legacy compatibility.
  • noaccelmanager: disable Acceleration Manager (for 3D desktop selection).
  • noapic nolapic: disable APIC (mostly used on some faulty bioses).
  • gentoo=nohdparm nohdparm ide=nodma: If the system hangs on hdparm service startup or your system does not have DMA Hard drives, try this.
  • acpi=off: disable ACPI completely.
  • pci=noacpi: disable ACPI for PCI maps (HP servers and VIA chipsets).
  • pci=nomsi: disable MSI (Message Signalled Interrupts). Some chipsets do not handle MSI well, leading to difficulties in identifying Hard Drives and other devices.
  • floppy.floppy=thinkpad: useful for some ThinkPad notebooks.
  • all-generic-ide: useful when your IDE CD/DVD Reader is not detected at boot
  • vga=771: useful on some wide-screen laptops. It forces a healthy framebuffer resolution.
  • maxcpus=1: set the max of CPU's to be used by the kernel. Usefull for macbooks.
  • doslowusb: If you run grub(2) from an external HD this is what you want to add.
  • scandelay=10: If you run grub(2) from an external HD this is what you want to add.

NOTE: Feel free to add extra cheat codes.

KMS (Kernel Mode Setting)

Since the linux-sabayon 2.6.33 kernel version KMS got gently introduced. If you enable KMS you let the Kernel set the screen resolution instead of Xorg. For Intel based video this has become mandatory since xorg-server 1.7 and it is enabled by default for that.

To use KMS with the Opensource ati driver:

  • radeon.modeset=1

To completely disable KMS:

  • nomodeset

Special features

Sabayon Linux supports some enhanced features, like the ability to surf anonymously, Internet Kiosk framework and persistent home directory.

What is Tor/Privoxy

Just start with the boot option:

  • tor: enable the system to use Tor/Privoxy system to surf the web anonymously.

is a free software implementation of second-generation onion routing — a system enabling its users to communicate anonymously on the Internet. Originally sponsored by the US Naval Research Laboratory, Tor became an Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) project in late 2004. The EFF supported Tor financially until November 2005 [1], and continues to provide web hosting for the project.

Like all current low-latency anonymity networks, Tor is vulnerable to correlation attacks from attackers who can watch both ends of a user's connection. In a number of countries, including the US, various government agencies have access to connection data of a large number of internet service providers. Because of this, Tor is not suitable for protection against big-brother-like observation by those government agencies.

What is Internet Kiosk

Again, just start with the boot option:

  • internetkiosk: enable Internet Kiosk mode (do not use this - use the command outside).
  • nxclient: used along with "internetkiosk" parameter, autostarts NX Client.

Internet Kiosk is an automated Internet navigation system based on Sabayon Linux, KDE and NoMachine NX Server/Client. You can not only surf the internet, you can listen to music across the NX network, burn CD/DVD from your terminal, print your photo, play 2D games, use your Flash Pen, write and read Office documents (OpenDocument and MSOffice ones).

  • How it works:
    • Internet Kiosk System starts if you meet these requirements:
      • A NoMachine NX Server available (that will be the real locked-in user desktop)
      • A Thin Client with NX Client or an OLD Computer with at least 192MB of RAM, a DVD Reader and 2MB of non-volatile memory like USB flash memory or IDE HD.
  • There are two Operational modes:
    • Internet Kiosk NX: A memory device /dev/sda1 or /dev/hda1 must be available. This can be formatted in ext3, reiserfs, xfs, reiser4, ext2 or FAT32 (very important because most of USB keys are pre-formatted with this filesystem). If you don't have this partition, you can boot SabayonLinux LiveDVD normally and then use Partition Editor on the desktop (aka GParted) to create it. Priority is given to /dev/sda1. So, if you have /dev/sda1 and /dev/hda1, /dev/sda1 will be used. At boot time, init scripts change Default Desktop Environment to Fluxbox, stop some services, like SSH, Syslog, Clamav, FreeNX Server, and autostart NX Client with the configuration files created/stored (automagically by SabayonLinux) on our non-volatile memory. In addition, a script "startinternetkiosk.sh" can be placed on it and will be called in the boot runlevel. From 2.60.2, another script "startinternetkiosk_endboot.sh", can be called before X load and must be placed in the same directory of startinternetkiosk.sh.
    • Internet Kiosk: The difference is that it will only call "startinternetkiosk.sh" (boot runlevel) and "startinternetkiosk_endboot.sh" (before X start) from your non-volatile memory and no other changes are made.


What is XsistenCe

  • One Removable Device (USB storage) + Sabayon Linux = your data everywhere. In other words, you can use your Home directory in read/write mode and your data will be stored on your external non-volatile removable device.
    • Just have a previously formatted USB external disk (like a flash pen).
    • A blank file called "xsistence-mode" on the root of the USB storage above.
    • Some free space on it, at least 15 MB.
    • Add "xsistence" boot option to enable it.
      • If the System detects a previously created image file, it will use that.
      • If the System does not detect an XsistenCe image, it will be created.
      • You can specify the size (MB) of it, by adding: "xsistence_mb=xxx"
  • boot example:
 sabayon xsistence xsistence_mb=100

Gaming and multimedia capabilities

Sabayon Linux is the most advanced and complete Linux distribution when it comes to multimedia completeness and capabilities. Use the parameters below only in ISOLINUX command line mode (no need to write those in Sabayon Linux 3.2).

OpenGL and Accelerated Desktop

If you want to try to get your OpenGL Acceleration or your Accelerated Desktop to work in cases that it doesn't, just poke with the commands below. You only need to add those parameters to the boot commandline.

  • opengl
    • Force the System to use a specific OpenGL subsystem, when autodetection fails.
   example for NVIDIA (with NVIDIA Proprietary drivers):
   opengl=nvidia
   example for ATI (with ATI Proprietary drivers)
   opengl=ati
   example for X.Org Mesa implementation
   opengl=xorg-x11
  • agpgart
    • Force the System to load the AGP driver, when the autodetection fails.
  • noaccelmanager
    • Disable the loading of the Acceleration Manager application.
  • aiglx
    • Enable AIGLX Desktop Acceleration and disable Acceleration Manager.

Supported languages

- The DVD Editions support every language available for the respective application. For example, starting from Sabayon Linux 3.2, we support all GNOME, KDE, Firefox and OpenOffice language packs.

ibus packages are available for your special input method needs.

- Language support on the MiniEditions is limited to English, for space reasons.