Cs:Časté dotazy(FAQ):Správce balíčků

From Sabayon Wiki
Revision as of 10:15, 18 July 2012 by Jablko (Talk | contribs) (Vytvoření stránky)

(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to: navigation, search

About Package Manager

I just installed it, what do I do first?

This question has always amazed me. Who says there is anything to do? How about just using the operating system and getting familiar with it? Take some time and read the documentation. If you insist on having to do something then emerge --sync && layman -S to update your Portage package list, or, if using Entropy, see Fresh Install

How do I update/install packages?

There are 2 package managers, Entropy and Portage. It is highly recommended that you choose and only use 1 package manager. Conflicts can arise from mixing both package managers. Please read the Entropy page. Entropy is the package manager specially developed for Sabayon Linux. It has a command line interface (Equo) and a GUI interface (Sulfur). Equo commands and Sulfur GUI are Entropy and recommended for newer users of Sabayon Linux. Advanced users of Sabayon Linux may wish to use Portage, the package manager developed for Gentoo Linux, on which Sabayon Linux is based. For information on Portage, please read HOWTO: The Complete Portage Guide.

What about a GUI for managing packages?

Sulfur is the GUI for the Entropy package manager.

emerge and layman are Portage commands, Portage is not our own package manager but is available to advanced users. Any steps using these commands can be safely ignored

There are GUIs for the Portage package manager, but they are no substitute for using emerge on the command line.

  • Portato is a GUI for Portage that we recommend as it is the most actively developed. Home Page

Personally if you have to rely on a GUI, then try to just use it as a browser of Portage, but still use the command line to install your packages. You will save yourself a lot of headaches. Search and gather your information needed with the GUI then open up Konsole or Terminal and install using the emerge command.

Jak nainstaluji několik balíčků?

V Entropy:

# equo install foo foo foo foo foo

V Portage:

# emerge foo foo foo foo foo

Správce balíčků nainstaluje každý balíček jeden po druhém. Zaměňte foo aktuálním názvem balíčku.

Jak mohu vyhledat balíček?

  • V Entropy:
# equo search foo

nebo použijte Sulfur GUI, nebo Webová stránka Sabayon Linuxu Entropy package search page.

  • V Portage:
# emerge -s foo

nebo použijte GUI, například Portato.

Používání EIX

  • V Portage:

Velmi doporučuji používat eix. Je to ten nejlepší nástroj, který máte k dispozici pro hledání. Je to nástroj příkazové řádky, ale je velmi mocný a zobrazí vám spoustu informací.

# emerge eix && eix-update
# eix foo

Můžete použít také eix v Entropy:

# equo install eix && eix-update
# eix foo

Příklad výstupu eix gedit:

 [I] app-editors/gedit
     Available versions:  2.18.2-r1 2.20.3 (~)2.20.4 {acl debug doc python spell xattr}
     Installed versions:  2.20.4(07:05:31 AM 12/29/2007)(python -debug -doc -spell -xattr)
     Homepage:            http://www.gnome.org/
     Description:         A text editor for the GNOME desktop

Eix má schopnost vyhledávat v Portage a dalších. Jednoduše editujte soubor /etc/eix-sync.conf a přidejte * do

# echo '*' >> /etc/eix-sync.conf


# eix-remote update

Now when you search, it will tell where and what overlay a package is in if it is not in the Portage main tree. This will widen your abilities to find packages, as overlays contain a lot of ebuilds too.


Can I emerge 2 packages at same time in Portage?

Yes you can, but it can and will bog your system down. It's not really recommended.

How do I update everything at once?

For Entropy:

# equo update
# equo upgrade
# equo conf update

See the Sabayon Wiki article Entropy for details.

emerge and layman are Portage commands. Portage is not our package manager but is available to advanced users. Any steps using these commands can be safely ignored

If you are new to this distro and have no understanding of Portage, we do not recommend this until you get to know how this distro works. This is one of the fastest ways to destroy your system. This distro is not like the other distros that have the big easy button update. For your information though, 'world update' is what Gentoo calls updating your entire system. It looks at your 'world file' and compares it to Portage and then proceeds to update all packages. Following is how:

# emerge -- sync && layman -S
# emerge -ua world

You've been warned. When you come yelling because your system won't boot, don't expect sympathy.

N.B. The term 'world' is no longer used in Entropy.

Jak odinstaluji balíček?

  • V Entropy:
# equo remove foo

Poznámka - toto odstraní závislosti.

  • V Portage:
 # emerge -C foo

Poznámka - toto neodstraní závislosti. Pro to potřebujete spustit depclean. Doporučuji s depclean zacházet opatrně.

How do I find out which packages depend on a certain package?

# equery depends foo

It will tell you all files depending on that package. See using gentoolkit for more information and commands.

I keep getting !!! ARCH is not set... Are you missing the 'etc/make.profile' symlink?

In Konsole/Terminal use the su command to become the root user and then:

  • Run the following command: eselect profile list
  • Look for something like: default-linux/x86/2007.0/desktop and note the number in front of it.
  • Then do: eselect profile set # <--replace the # with the number. In my case it would be eselect profile set 6

Now you should be good to go again.

Musím pokaždé, když chci upgradovat systém, stahovat LiveCD/DVD?

Ne, Sabayon je "rolling release". Ačkoli v některých případech upgrade přes live DVD může ušetřit čas.

Entropy: Příkaz equo dělá upgrade jednoduchým - podívejte se na Entropy.

Portage: Portage je určený pro pokročilejší uživatele, kteří preferují vyšší stupeň přizpůsobivosti. Portage is recommended for advanced users that prefer a higher degree of customization. That being said, Gentoo documentation is quite extensive and helpful for those wanting to dive into it.

Always backup your files before doing anything. My personal opinion: backup, fresh install, restore backup.

What is Entropy or Equo?

Entropy is the binary package manager of Sabayon Linux. To install binary packages you use either the command line client Equo or the GUI client Sulfur.

A binary package is a file package containing the already-compiled files to install instead of having to compile the source code. Equo and Sulfur handle these files.

How do I check for security updates ?

It's pretty easy to keep your system secure. Entropy does this for you automatically.

For Portage:

  • Open up konsole or terminal and enter the command su to become the root user.
  • Run the command glsa-check -t all to check your system.
  • Then to fix, run glsa-check -f $(glsa-check -t all)

You can also visit our security wiki for more helpful tips:

How do I handle blocked packages?

This is an issue in Portage. You are going to run into packages blocking other packages. This can happen for several reasons, e.g. a package has been dropped from Portage as it no longer exists or is no longer supported. In most cases you will simply have to remove (uninstall) the package that is blocking the new package. You will want to do some research on this first. Don't take Portage for granted and blindly do as it says without checking out what or why.

Note - latest versions of Portage (version 2.2 and higher) handle most blockages.

How to handle masked packages?

A package is complaining that it is masked and cannot install. This is one of those times you want to check why it is masked. A masked package is usually masked to prevent you from busting things. There are several ways a package can be masked. You can still install masked packages by unmasking them, but make sure you find out first why they are masked.

How do I update the config files?

As you install stuff, some packages are going to bring in new versions of their config files. These config files are important as they may have new settings for that package that need to be implemented. I stress that is is very, very crucial that you pay attention to these config files. You can change the entire outcome of your installation if you are not careful. Get to know your config files. There are several ways to handle these files:

For Entropy:

# equo conf update

For Portage: dispatch-conf and etc-update are probably the most popular ways of handling updates to config files. A GUI tool is etc-proposals.

Please handle these files with care. You can't know these files enough.

Where do I start to configure my system?

For Entropy: All packages are pre-configured remotely as they have been compiled on a remote computer. You do not need to (and cannot) do anything. If a package has been compiled without a specific USE flag that you need, then you will either have to request to the Entropy repository maintainers that the package be rebuilt (file a bug report in bugzilla) and the new version placed in the Entropy repository, or use Portage to rebuild it yourself.

For Portage: The file make.conf is your heart and soul of your operating system. Learn it, edit it and build a lean, mean machine. Sabayon Linux ships with a generic make.conf that tries to support everything under the sun. You don't need all that stuff and by configuring, you will have lesser issues with Portage and conflicts.

Where does Portage download the packages to?

They are downloaded and stored in the directory /usr/portage/distfiles/

Where does Entropy download the packages to?

They are downloaded and stored in the directory /var/tmp/entropy/packages/ For instance, on my amd64 using Branch 4 they are stored in /var/tmp/entropy/packages/amd64/5

How do I clean out Entropy downloaded packages?

# equo cleanup

See Sabayon Wiki page of Equo commands or equo --help --verbose

Zpět na Časté dotazy(FAQ)

Hlavní strana